English: White-tailed Deer; French: Cerf de Virginie; Aztek: iztac mazatl; Brazilian: Veado galheiro do mato; Maya: ceh/keh; Quechua: taruka? Apache: Cree: apseemoosis; Spanish: Venado cola blanca, Venado carameruda, Ciervo virginiano.
Former distribution: As now.
Present distribution: North and Central America, except California, Nevada, Utah, northern Arizona, West Colorado and north-western New Mexico. In South America: Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Surinam, northern Brazil, Peru, western Brazil and northern Bolivia. Introduced into CSSR (1852), Finland, Yugoslavia, New Zealand to the South Island and Stewart Islands, Curacao, Virgin Islands to St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John.
Behaviour: Preferred habitat: open grasslands to woodlands, scrub and cultivated areas in both low and hilly regions. Occur in female groups of 4 (1 old female, 1 yearling, and 1-2 fawns). Males (2-4) are gregarious from February to August; active mainly at twilight, occasionally at midday and at night. They browse on a great variety of plants – leaves, stems, buds of woody shrubs, twigs of deciduous species, forbs, fungi, fruits and farm crops. Predators include pumas, wolves, coyotes, foxes, bob cats, dogs and eagles. Motor traffic kills many animals.
Population status: Stable, except Odocoileus v. clavium (Florida), Odocoileus v. leucurus (southwestern Washington and western Oregon), and Odocoileus v. ustus (Ecuador). Total estimated numbers: 19-20 millions; Yugoslavia: 250-300; Finland: 30 000; CSSR: 200-300.
Body weight: 52-140 kg
Head and body length: 180-240 cm
Tail length: 15-30 cm
Shoulder height: 85-110 cm
Gestation period: 203 days
Maximum age: Up to 20 years
Trophy: Record SCI: Odocoileus v. virginianus: 166 1/8 score, 1982 Canada, Saskatchewan, KENNETH J. LANGE; typical antlers average 100 score. Odocoileus v. virginianus: 227 2/8 score, 1982 Mexico, RON KOLPIN; non-typical antlers average 125 score. Odocoileus v. couesi: 116 5/8 score, 1969 Mexico, Sonora, GEORGE W. PARKER; typical antlers average 70 score. Odocoileus v. couesi: 119 5/8 score, 1977 USA, Arizona, JEAN L. ECUYER; non-typical antlers average 90 score. Odocoileus v. truei: 68 score, 1959 Costa Rica, JORGE ANDRÉ; average 60 score. B&C: 206 5/8 score, USA, Minnesota. Odocoileus v. virginianus: typical antlers average 170 score. Odocoileus v. virginianus: 286 score, 1892 USA, Texas, JEFF BENSON; non-typical antlers average 195 score. Odocoileus v. couesi: 143 score, 1953 USA, Arizona, ED STOCKWELL; typical antlers average 110 score. Odocoileus v. couesi: 151 4/8 score, USA, Arizona, CHARLES C. MABRY; non-typical antlers average 120 score. CIC: 311.20 points, 1983 CSSR, A. NOVAK; average 260 points. 284.90 points, 1965 New Zealand, ALLISON; average 250 points.
Hunting methods: Stalking, from a hide, with beaters, dogs, on horseback.
Subspecies: 38, 24 Nearctic, 14 Neo-tropical region
1. Odocoileus v. borealis South-eastern Canada, north-eastern USA.
2. Odocoileus v. dacotensis Alberta to North Dakota.
3. Odocoileus v. ochrourus South-western Canada and north-western USA.
4. Odocoileus v. leucurus USA, western Oregon; endangered: 400-500.
5. Odocoileus v. couesi Arizona and Mexico.
6. Odocoileus v. texanus Texas and adjoining states.
7. Odocoileus v. macrourus Kansas and adjoining states.
8. Odocoileus v. virginianus Virginia and adjoining states.
9. Odocoileus v. taurinsulae Bulls Islands.
10. Odocoileus v. venatorius Hunting Islands.
11. Odocoileus v. hiltonensis Hilton Head Island.
12. Odocoileus v. nigribarbis Blackbeard Island.
13. Odocoileus v. seminolus Florida.
14. Odocoileus v. clavium Florida Keys; endangered.
15. Odocoileus v.osceola North-western Florida.
16. Odocoileus v. meilhennyi Louisiana.
17. Odocoileus v. carminis Northern Mexico, Carmen Mountains.
18. Odocoileus v. miquihuanensis Central Mexico.
19. Odocoileus v. sinaloae Mid-western Mexico.
20. Odocoileus v. veraecrucis Eastern Mexico.
21. Odocoileus v. mexicanus Central Mexico.
22. Odocoileus v. acapulcensis South-eastern Mexico.
23. Odocoileus v. oaxancensis Southern Mexico.
24. Odocoileus v. toltecus Southern Mexico.
25. Odocoileus v. thomasi South-eastern Mexico.
26. Odocoileus v. yucatanensi Honduras.
27. Odocoileus v. truei Nicaragua and adjoining states.
28. Odocoileus v. nelsoni South Mexico, Guatemala.
29. Odocoileus v. chiriquensis Panama.
30. Odocoileus v. rothschildi Coiba Islands.
31. Odocoileus v. tropicalis Western Colombia.
32. Odocoileus v. guodotii Colombia, western Venezuela.
33. Odocoileus v. curassavicus Curacao Island.
34. Odocoileus v. margaritae Margareta Island.
35. Odocoileus v. gymnotis Venezuela, Guyana.
36. Odocoileus v. cariacou Surinam, French Guyana, northern Brazil
37. Odocoileus v. ustus Ecuador. Endangered.
38. Odocoileus v. peruvianus Peru.
Remarks: The geographical variations between these subspecies are wide, and differ in all aspects such as weight, body length, skull and trophy quality. The validity of these subspecies is doubtful and, a revision is desirable. At least two different regions should be considered:
1. Canadian and US continent: Central American region: Odocoileus v. virginianus
2. South American region: Odocoileus v. cariacou. This also acc. to WEMMER (1982).