English: Asian Elephant; French: Eléphant dAsie; Abor: Sitte; Akas: Atche; Annamite: Con voi; Bahasa Jawa: Gajah; Bahasa Sunda: Gajah; Bengali: Gaj; Bothias: Lambochi; Burmese: Tseng; Cantonese: Cheong; Chinese: Cheoh, Xang; Chu: Supo; Gonds: Yani; Hindi: hathi; Kachari: Migung; Karens: Kahsa; Kashmiri: Haust; Khamti: Tsang; Kheh: Geong; Kukis: Saipi; Lepchas: Tengmu; Malabari: Kunjaram; Manipuri: Samu; Nagas: Sotso, Supo, Chu, Tsu; Persian: Fil; Singhalese: Ata, Allia; Singpho: Magui; Sundanese: gajak; Tamil: Ane; Thai: Chang; Talain: Tsing; Telegu: Hattanga, Konga, Eniga.
Former distribution: Mesopotamia east through Asia; India into China to the Yangtze Kiang valley; also in Java.
Present distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea and Yunnan in China.
Behaviour: Preferred habitat: lowland and mountain forests (both rain and deciduous), savanna and grasslands; diet includes grass, leaves and fruits; activity both diurnal and nocturnal. They are gregarious.
Population status: Endangered; stable only in national parks. Total 33-38 000; India, Bhutan and Bangladesh 9-15 000; Andaman Islands 30; Assam 4-8000; Borneo 2000; Burma 5000; China 100; Kampuchea, Laos, Vietnam 3500-5000; Malaysia 3-6000; Nepal 50; Sri Lanka 2000-4000; Sumatra 2800-4800; Thailand 2500-4500. Decreasing everywhere.
Body weight: Up to 5000 kg
Head and body length: 500-650 cm
Tail length: 120-150 cm
Shoulder height: 250-300 cm
Gestation period: 607-641 days
Maximum age: 60 years, up to 80 years in captivity
Trophy: Tusk RW’s: 161, 160 pounds, 1921 India, H.M. KING GEORGE VI; average 40 pounds. SCI: 97 pounds, Malaysia, TUNGKU KUDIN. 46, 44 3/4 pounds, Malaysia, WILLIAM HAY; average 30 pounds.
Hunting methods: Stalking, on elephant back. Almost everywhere protected by law.
1. Elephas m. maximus Sri Lanka. Endangered.
2. Elephas m. bengalensis Nepal, India, China, Burma. Endangered.
3. Elephas m. sumatranus Sumatra, Java, Borneo. Endangered.
4. Elephas m. hirsutus Malaysia. Endangered.
Remarks: The reasons for the steady decline are habitat destruction, deforestation, and conflict with man. The Asian Elephant has been used for timber hauling and hunting for centuries; it is still being so used. Operations for catching elephants still go on in most countries. Severe losses are normal.