Gabelhornantilope Antilocapra americana (Ord, 1815)


English: Pronghorn; French: Antilocapre americaine; Apache: Topi; Taos: Tah-ah-Nah; Piute: Tena; Mexican: berrendo; Klamath: Cha-o.

Former distribution: Southern Canada to the central and western USA; south to central Mexico.
Present distribution: Southern Saskatchewan and Alberta to all the great plains in the northern, central and western USA; south to central Mexico.
Behaviour: Preferred habitat: dry and semi-desert, open grasslands and bush. Activity diurnal and at twilight. They live gregariously in small family groups or in winter in herds of up to 200-1000. Diet includes grass and scrub.
Population status: Stable. 400 000 with exception of Antilocapra a. peninsularis 500, and Antilocapra a. sonoriensis 1000, which are endangered.
Brief notes:
Body weight: 50-70 kg
Head and body length: 100-150 cm
Tail length: 40-60 cm
Shoulder height: 80-100 cm
Gestation period: 252 days
Maximum age: 9-12 years (in captivity 12 years)
Trophy: Record SCI: 94 7/8 score, 1977 USA, New Mexico, JOHN PEARSON; average 70 score. B&C: 101 6/8 score, 1878 Arizona, Dr. H.H. BECK; average 82 score.
Hunting methods: Stalking, on horseback.
Subspecies: 5
1. Antilocapra a. americana Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada; Montana, western North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, Nevada. Stable.
2. Antilocapra a. oregona South-eastern Oregon. Stable.
3. Antilocapra a. mexicana Southern Arizona, New Mexico, Texas to central Mexico. Stable in USA; rare in Mexico.
4. Antilocapra a. peninsularis Southern California and Baja California in Mexico; total: 500? Endangered.
5. Antilocapra a. sonoriensis Southern Arizona, to central and western Sonora in Mexico. Endangered.
Remarks: The Pronghorn population was estimated at 30-40 millions in pre-Colombian times. By 1920 only 13 000 were left in the USA as a result of overhunting and persecution by farmers due to competition with grazing cattle. Within the last 50 years hunting regulations and field management have led to an increase of nearly 400 000 today. A remarkable example of how wildlife can be restored.