Rotfuchs Vulpes vulpes (Linné, 1758)


English: Red Fox; French: Renard; Albanian: Dhelpra; Arabic: thalab Ahmar; Bulgarian: Lisiza; Chinese: Huli; Czech: liska; Croatian: lisica; Estonian: Rebane; Lettish: Lapsa; Finnish: Kettu; Greek: Allepou; Irish: Sionnach (Madra Rua); Hebraic: Schual; H ungarian: Roka; Dutch: Vos, Iranian: Rubah; Italian: Volpe; Japanese: Kitsune; Korean: Yuh Woo; Lithuanian: Rudoji lapè; Mongol: Ulaan Üneg; Montenigrin: lisica; Norwegian: Rødrev; Pashto: Lambrah; Polish: Lis; Portuguese: Raposa; Romanian: Vulpe; Russian: Krasnaja lisa; Serb: lisica; Slovakian: liska; Slovenian: lisica; Swedish: Rödräv; Spanish: Zorro; Turkish: Tilki; Urdu: Lal Loomari.

Former distribution: As now.
Present distribution: The whole of Europe, except the Balearic Islands, Malta and Crete. North Africa; Senegal, Rio de Oro, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt; further Near East, Turkey, Iran, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, to northern Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan and USSR. North America; south to California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Louisiana, Newfoundland, but not on the Arctic Islands. Introduced into: Australia, USA and some Pacific Islands.
Behaviour: Preferred habitat includes all landscapes of the distribution areas. Hunting singly or in packs, taking small mammals, birds, fish, sometimes young sheep, young roedeer and poultry; they are omnivorous, also eating grass, fruit and insects. Main activity nocturnal and at twilight.
Population status: Everywhere stable.
Brief notes:
Body weight: 4-10 kg
Head and body length: 45-87 cm
Tail length: 25-50 cm
Shoulder height: 35-50 cm
Gestation period: 49-56 days
Maximum age: 12 years
Trophy: Skull length 15.2 cm, width 7.5 cm; CIC: 22.7 points.
Hunting methods: On a kill, calling, driven hunt, digging out with dachshunds; traps, eagles.
Subspecies: Palaearctic 31; Nearctic 12.
Remarks: The geographical variation of the Red Fox is quite considerable from north to south with regard to body length, weight and colour of the skin. Mixed forms among the different subspecies are normal; also between the autochton North American Subspecies and those animals which were imported into USA from England during the last century. There was also a remarkable interbreeding between red and polar foxes after their release from fur farms. Red Foxes were also introduced to Australia and some Paci fic Islands. It seems very doubtful if all 44 subspecies should still be recognized: therefore omitted here. A revision is needed.