English: Markhor; French: Markhor; Baluchi: Pachin, Sarah; Brahui: Matt, Rezkuh; Kashmiri: Markhor; Ladakhi: Rache, Raphoche; Nepali: Markhor; Pashto: Maar Khur; Russian: Wintorogij Kose-E, Mar-chur; Tamil: Kàttu àtu; Tibetan: Rira; Urdu: Markhor.
Former distribution: From southern Pakistan north to the north-western Himalayan chain and in the USSR, the Provinces of Tadzikistan and Uzbekistan.
Present distribution: As formerly, but reduced in isolated groups within its former range.
Behaviour: Preferred habitat: mountainous forest steppes, at altitudes of between 700 and 4000 m; they live in small family groups of 3-5 and are active mainly at twilight and at night; diet includes grasses, herbs, leaves, forest fruits, twigs and bark; they are predominantly browsers. Predators include bears, wolves and snow leopards; occasionally vultures and eagles.
Population status: Endangered and rare. Estimated numbers: Total 8000; USSR: 1000.
Body weight: 80-110 kg
Head and body length: 160-170 cm
Tail length: 12-15 cm
Shoulder height: 85-100 cm
Gestation period: 6 months
Maximum age: 10-12 years
Trophy: Record SCI: 114 score, 1971 Pakistan, RASHID JAMSHEED; average 70 score. RW’s: 65″, 1927 Kashmir, Co. A.B. SOUTER; average 36″. CIC: 388.80 points, Afghanistan, n.n.; average 360 points.
Hunting methods: Formerly by stalking, now protected everywhere by law.
1. Flat-horned Markhor: Capra f. falconeri Northern Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, Kashmir. Rare. Estimated numbers: 1500-2000.
2. Bokharan Markhor Capra f. heptneri USSR, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan along the Amu-Darja river and probably in northern Afghanistan. Rare. Estimated numbers: USSR 1000; Afghanistan 100-150. Trophy: Record CIC: 475.80 points, USSR; average 3 60 points.
3. Straight-horned Markhor: Capra f. megaceros Quetta Mountains and Waziristan in Pakistan; Afghanistan/Pakistan border at the Khyber Pass. Endangered. Estimated numbers: less than 100. Trophy: Record SCI: 102 7/8 score, 1968 Afghanistan, BERT KLINEBURGER; average 70 score. RW’s: 48 1/2, 1898, British Museum; average 27″.
Remarks: According to a re-classification of the subspecies (SCHALLER and KAHN 1975), the Chialtan Markhor, C.f. chialtanensis, was listed as wild goat (Capra hircus). Except for the populations in USSR all Markhor are now highly endangered and nearing extinction, due to habitat loss, uncontrolled hunting by troops and armed tribesmen.